Basic Components of Cellular Systems

1. Introduction

There are various cellular systems in the world, such as the GSM and CDMA. The design of these cellular systems are complicated but the architecture of most cellular systems can be broken down into six basic components.

In this article, I will illustrate the six basic components that can be found in most cellular systems.

2. Six basic components of Cellular Systems

The architecture of most cellular systems can be broken down into the following six components:

a) Mobile Station (MS)

A mobile station is basically a mobile/wireless device that contains a control unit, a transceiver and an antenna system for data and voice transmission. For example, in GSM networks, the mobile station will consist of the mobile equipment (ME) and the SIM card.

b) Air Interface Standard

There are three main air interface protocols or standards: frequency division multiple access (FDMA), time division multiple access (TDMA) and code division multiple access (CDMA). These standards are basically the medium access control (MAC) protocols that define the rules for entities to access the communication medium.

These air interface standards allow many mobile user to share simultaneously the finite amount of radio channels.

c) Base Station (BS)

A base station is a fixed station in a mobile cellular system used for radio communications with mobile units. They consist of radio channels and transmitter and receiver antenna mounted on a tower.

d) Databases

Another integral component of a cellular system is the databases. Databases are used to keep track of information like billing, caller location, subscriber data, etc. There are two main databases called the Home Location Register (HLR) and Visitor Location Register (VLR). The HLR contains the information of each subscriber who resides in the same city as the mobile switching center (MSC). The VLR temporarily stores the information for each visiting subscriber in the coverage area of a MSC. Thus, the VLR is the database that supports roaming capability.

e) Security Mechanism

The security mechanism is to confirm that a particular subscriber is allowed to access the network and also to authenticate the billing.

There are two databases used for security mechanism: Equipment Identify Register (EIR) and Authentication Center (AuC). The EIR identifies stolen or fraudulently altered phones that transmit identity data that does not match with information contained in either the HLR or VLR. The AuC, on the other hand, manages the actual encryption and verification of each subscriber.

f) Gateway

The final basic component of a cellular system is the Gateway. The gateway is the communication links between two wireless systems or between wireless and wired systems. There are two logical components inside the Gateway: mobile switching center (MSC) and interworking function (IWF).

The MSC connects the cellular base stations and the mobile stations to the public switched telephone network (PSTN) or other MSC. It contains the EIR database.

The IWF connects the cellular base stations and the mobile stations to Internet and perform protocol translation if needed.

3. Conclusion

This article aims to provide an introductory guide to the architecture of a typical cellular system and identify the six basic components found in most cellular systems. This article offers an insight towards how a cellular system is designed although different cellular systems may have variations in their own implementations.

Contextual Communication – What Is It?

In a book I wrote on communication, I specifically talk about Contextual Communication as opposed to just communication as we know it. What is contextual communication? How does it differ from communication proper? And how can it help improve our communication? Let’s take a look.

Let’s say you’re frustrated one day, over an important matter on the job and run to your boss under the pressure of the moment. You may not come in with the best of chosen words.

Your boss should recognize that your behavior is out of context. Under normal conditions, you would communicate more rationally and constructively. Therefore, being aware of that, the Receiver (the listener, in this case your boss) will possess a certain understanding at this critical moment.

We are more vulnerable to misunderstandings and negative reactions at home. People are at their best at work or in public, and can restrain themselves more and apply communication tools. At home, we unfortunately forget our respect at times for one other. However it is the best place to begin to practice communication improvement and changes we would like to make in our lives.

If your boss is not properly trained, he/she may, sometimes, return an unexpected verbiage of literary responses which will begin a series of escalating words, or even unspoken misunderstandings. That could accumulate to serious confrontations or silent ends (you don’t say anything, walk away, but carry the grudge of the unfinished business).

The same kind of situation applies the other way around: the subordinate might misunderstand the boss at a vulnerable time. Often these confrontations can carve permanent damage in relationships. One may even lose a job over as a result of it.

What is the Contextual part? It is the whole of “the parts of a sentence, paragraph, discourse, etc. immediately next to or surrounding a specified word or passage and determining its exact meaning (to quote a remark out of context). The whole situation, background, or environment relevant to a particular event, personality, creation, etc. Contextual: of, depending on, or belonging to the context. (New World Dictionary).

Just as in reading, where one reads within the context of the words, the sentence, the paragraph, the chapter, the plot, the subject, the issue…, communication is also read, heard or understood within the context of the subject matters and the communicators — by both the Sender (speaker, presenter, etc) and the Receiver (the listener).

In a conversation each one of us, alternatively takes on the role of the Sender and the Receiver. Each one can also be a Sender only or a Receiver only. For example, we are a Sender only when we speak to someone who does not engage in the conversation, as in when we are teaching or giving a presentation or seminar, or giving instructions, etc. We are a Receiver only when we are the listener in an audience or a class or an instructional situation. But, most of the time, we are both at different times. We engage in conversations that require us to be Senders when we speak and Receivers when we listen.

The Contextual part of communication requires us to be aware of the context within which the subject matter is being discussed — the surroundings of both points of view. If we learn to see this contextual part, learn it and use it, most people will be able to improve their communication by 50-100% in most cases./dmh

What Is Toyota Production System?

What is Toyota Production System (TPS)?

Toyota production system is an efficient productive system that is accepted worldwide by many of the businesses and was generally proved to be one of the most effective ways to make profit and to balance production along with money circulation. Toyota production system is a simple way of making things fast, quick, and productive. It is well-known for its efficiency and its just-in-time concept that results in a continuous product managing process and a well self-defense plan for a business, not to keep numbers of defective products in storage. TPS is famous for its productive management process that comes together in pair, the Jidoka and the Just-in-Time concept, in which a specific number of products are produced to prevent large numbers of stocks that are not needed. Both the Jidoka and the Just-in-Time concept are widely-used in world-wide businesses and are guaranteed to be the two best ways to manage the production process and to maintain stability in a business efficiently.

Its Origin

Form its name, 'Toyota' is a company from the land of the rising sun, Japan. Japan is indeed the world's most technological country filled with technology and a wide-variety of rituals and cultural performances that wows the world with its beautiful nature as well as its wise business management and productivity processes. Developed by Taichii Ohno, the TPS or the Toyota Production System functions efficiently and was shared globally to all businesses. Many Japanese philosophers at that time thought out ideas on managing process and productivity in order to improve businesses and to enhance their efficiency through products and their high quality. Eiji Toyoda cave employees and workers values ​​and importance which increased productivity and teaming within offices, faculties, and companies.

The Jidoka

The Jidoka is a simple concept of visualization and determination of problems. It ensures that all machines or capitals work well without any technical problems. If any problems are detected or if the machines are malfunctioned, then the machines will automatically stop once normal processes are done. Jidoka is generally a quality testing visualization concept that will ensure businesses their product quality and minimize malfunctions of capitals, stock, as well as loss of profit. With the Jidoka concept, products with high quality will be produced. These satisfying quality products will be further passed on to next processes. Jidoka is considered simple and technological due to its multiple installations of the andons or the problem-display screen in different parts of the company that will show the operators problems detected by the system. These operators can work on many parts of the production system and can monitor numbers of machines all at the same time with the help of technology and a well-developed plan, the Jidoka concept. This concept will benefit the whole system being increasing productivity while improvements lead to a better processing capacity

Pros and Cons of Jidoka

Pros:

1. It eliminates wastes or products that are defective or malfunctioned

2. It ensures product quality

3. Provide safety for workers and employers

4. Keeps goals oriented

5. More percentage of reaching set profits and expectations

Cons:

1. High cost of technological tools

2. Specific target market

3. Result in an unstable productivity

4. Strict rules and regulations

Just-in-Time

Just-in-Time is a quick, fast concept in the production line that ensures its operations safety by elimination of wastes and by producing only what is needed by setting how much products should be produced and when they should be produced which will include ways to Store products safely. The Just-in-Time concept is primarily used in motor or vehicle businesses which deals very much with production of vehicles and the transportation plans which includes period of time needed to complete orders and ways vehicles are transported.

How Just-in-Time works

1. Once an order is placed, it should be delivered as quickly as possible to the first line of production.

2. The assembly line or those in charge of vehicle parts like wheels, colors, and seats has to have all parts well-equipped and ready made in order to function automatically as soon as possible once an order is placed.

3. The numbers or the amount of parts has to be the same for both the assembly line as well as the parts-producing process.

4. The preceding process group has to have spare amounts of all parts of a vehicle and should have at least an amount retrieved by the business's operator.

By following 5 simple steps in the production process or line, elimination of wastes and inconsistencies will ensure profit expectations as well as standard requirements of the businesses. One of the concepts within the Just-in-Time system is the Kanban system. The Kanban systems use the idea of ​​supermarket management and productivity. The Kanban system uses codes, serial numbers, and names to make all parts of the production process easy and flexible. It will help improve the structure of the production process as well as keep the processes on tract. The supermarket storage idea provides needed amount of products in relation to the demands in the market and so it is convenient for customers because products are in stock just only in a limited amount.

Pros and Cons of Just-in-Time Concept

Pros:

1. Funds that were kept and tied up in inventories could be used later in other processes

2. Quick response to customer

3. Product quality ensured

4. Defect rates are reduced

5. Greater potential output

Cons:

1. Expensive and costly to introduce

2. Not enough products in stock

3. Not enough time to complete orders / overhaul of productivity

4. Strict rules and regulations

Summary

The Toyota Production System or the TPS is indeed an efficient way to ensure product quality and make sure products are produced fast and quickly. TPS allows high productivity and an increase in demand for products. Components of specific products can be ordered accordingly; Large amount of stocks are not kept and wastes are eliminated effectively to reach the company's goals that are set and directed as well as reach standard requirements.

Functions of Digestive System and Excretory System

The digestive and excretory systems are subsystems of human body and are connected to each other. The digestive system is responsible for providing fuel required for the proper working of human body whereas excretory system manages and removes the waste out of human body. The description for the working of digestive system and excretory system is as follow:

Human Digestive system

The human digestive system is constructed of hollow tube like organs. You may wonder to know that if you place digestive system parts one after the other, the formation will be 9 meter long!

It is hunger or thirst that directs us to eat some food or drink any liquid (in most cases it is water). As soon as we put the food in our mouth and start chewing it the process of digestion begins. Chewing is very important in digestion process. Properly chewed food decreases the stress on other involved organs like esophagus. Chewing is also an indicator for other parts that food is coming and release of hydrochloric acid is triggered. The chewed food is swallowed and moved into the esophagus, a muscular tube connecting throat and stomach. At this step the process of digestion becomes automatic. Esophagus takes the food from throat to the stomach entrance.

Near stomach there is a muscular ring which acts as valve and keeps the entrance from Esophagus to stomach close. But when food reaches near the stomach muscles relaxed and food enters into the stomach. The top muscle of stomach is relaxed so that large amounts of food and liquids can be stored into the stomach. The function of the lower stomach is to mix the food and liquids with the digestive juices produced by stomach. This is done by altering muscle tension. After mixing all the contents the mixed material is forced to move into small intestine again by muscle movement.

In small intestine food is further broken down into smaller molecules. This is done with the help of enzymes produced by pancreas and small intestine. The small intestine is very important organ as it absorbs fat and nutrients necessary for the cell growth and to produce other forms of energy for body functioning.

In the last of digestion process, after the nutrients are absorbed by the walls of intestine from the food mixture, what remains of the food is called waste. Waste produced during the digestion process contains unused parts and fiber.

Excretory System

Both, the digestive system and excretory system, work together and interact with each other through nervous system. Excretory system is as necessary as digestive system. Unusable materials and fiber remains of digestion process are very dangerous for human body. In absence of excretory system our bodies would be filled with poisonous materials like Nitrogen which is produced after protein metabolism.

Working of Excretory system: Excretory system comes into frame after the completion of digestion system. It deals with solid waste and liquid waste separately. After small intestine the food is moved into large intestine. Here some liquids and electrolytes are removed from the remains and can be counted in digestion process. There are many types of bacteria that help in further digestion of these remains. The Food remains that couldn’t be utilized are moved into descending colon and then to sigmoid colon. When colon gets filled muscles force the waste to travel towards the rectum unit. Then solid waste is gathered in rectum and finally moved out excreted through the anus. This is what is called nature call.

Excretion process of liquid waste can be understood by knowing the functions of involved organs and parts. The following are the parts and their functioning in the same order they take part in the process:

The following are the organs and their function in Excretory System:

Solid waste

Aorta – Aorta provides a pathway for blood to reach kidneys and other body parts.

Kidneys: The kidneys filter the blood using nephrons (made up of small filtering units) for liquid waste and ureain the form of urine which is stored in bladder.

Bladder – Bladder is a hollow organ found in the lower part of the abdomen kept in place by ligaments attached to other organs. The bladder walls are formed with detrusor muscles. It can increase its volume by expanding its walls. It stores Fluid waste called urine. Detrusor muscles squeeze and the urine out of the body through urethra.

Ureters: There are two ureters in our body. Their function is move the urine from the kidneys to the bladder.

Purpose of Shaft Grounding Systems in Marine Engineering

Purpose of Shaft Grounding Systems in Marine Engineering

It’s Science 101:

Electricity and water don’t mix.

That maxim is no clearer than in marine engineering, where seawater mixed with the electrical systems of a propeller can cause corrosion, loss of efficiency and system failure.

To completely protect a ship it’s important to electrically ground the ship’s propeller to the hull. Grounding the propeller limits corrosion and damage to the propeller’s shaft, bearings, and gear box.

Every motor-powered marine vessel should have some sort of shaft grounding system installed.

Shaft is Critical

One of the most critical parts in a marine vessel’s propulsion system is the shaft. Shafts that become corroded over time lose their efficiency. An overly corroded shaft can lead to system failure.

A grounding system is important.

That’s because as electricity runs through the engine to the propeller it mixes with water. The combination of the two – called an electro-chemical reaction – causes corrosion to the shaft.

The shaft provides thrust to move the vessel forward.

Shafts that become corroded over time due to electrochemical reactions with seawater lose their efficiency. They become weaker at transferring energy from the vessel’s engine to its exterior propulsion system.

A grounding system is also necessary to protect the drive-motors bearings from electrical damage. Excessive capacitive discharge can lead to electrical bearing failure.

At the same time, corrosion left unchecked can shorten any ship’s lifespan. This may cause maintenance problems too occur sooner than otherwise.

How Does It Work?

The principle behind shaft grounding is fairly simple.

In most marine vessels, propellers driven by electric current create charges along the exposed sections of the prop. A grounding system insures that as small a charge as possible escapes. The system is designed to ground out all electricity in the ship’s hull.

The grounding prevents free-flowing electrons from doing their damage.

As a result, both the propeller and engine are able to run longer and stronger due to less damage. In most cases, each propeller shaft should hold a ground system.

One type of a grounding system uses a layer of metal outside the shaft. This way, any electrochemical potential from seawater will be attracted to the outer layer as opposed to the shaft itself.

Types of Grounding Varies

The best kind of grounding system to use depends on the vessel.

There are different choices and owner can choose.

Some factors include the type of engine, size of the ship and composition of the hull. Also, systems get more complicated depending on the amount of charge handled. At the same time, the number of propellers and engines a vessel has also affects the choice of system.

Consult a Professional

It’s not always possible to prevent 100 percent corrosion on or within a marine vessel. But the importance of shaft grounding systems in marine engineering should not be overlooked.

Talk to a professional for the most current information on the purpose of grounding systems.

10 Steps to Effective Communication

At the root of any successful leader is a strong ability to communicate. Sure, there have been leaders who have ascended into the highest positions and did not have that skill, but they probably did not last long. This point was illustrated recently as I listened to a NPR program about the failure of the big banks on Wall Street. When Congress grilled executives from these institutions about why they did not catch the risky investments that were being made that extremely failed, their answers were all the same and quite simple – we did not know. It was their job to know and either nobody told them or they did not catch it in the data they had access to. No flags were raised; Nobody asked so nobody told. This is definitely a communication meltdown that had widespread negative consequences.

What is communication? Communication in life is the pinnacle of every successful – and not so successful – relationship. According to Webster's dictionary, communication is defined as a process of transferring information from one entity to another. Communication processes are sign-mediated interactions between at least two agents, which share a repertoire of signs, and semiotic rules. Communication is commonly defined as "the importing or exchange of thoughts, opinions, or information by speech, writing, or signs". Although there is such a thing as one-way communication, communication can be perceived better as a two-way process in which there is an exchange and progress of thoughts, feelings or ideas (energy) towards a mutually accepted goal or direction (information) .

Why is communication important? Often times, we have a message which we want to communicate or we want the receiver of message to understand our message in the same sense as we convey it. Take for example a company's need to raise the cost of health insurance. Often times, this is conveyed through a written document to the employees at open enrollment time. The employee's reaction is usually anger towards the company for making them pay more money for health coverage. The miss here is that the company is not sharing as much information as they should help the employee understand how the raising cost of health insurance coverage affects the company and their contribution too. A company should give the employee a total compensation statement at that time so all employees can see how much the company invests in him / her as individuals. Giving each employee a clear, individualized picture and then telling the employee the cost is raising would change the way the message is received. There may still be anger, but it will be focused on the right culprit of raising costs, which are the insurance and medical companies and not the employer. Effective communication helps in that the message is enable to achieve its goals and helps in receiving the desired response from the reader of the message. Effective communication helps organizations in keeping good relations with their customers and employees; Forwarding information effectively helps in avoiding any dispute that can arise because of a misunderstanding.

The 4 Types of Communication. I used to work with someone who I refer to as a "chit-chatter." He'd walk the halls every day knocking on doors and say, "do you have a minute? ' An hour and a half later he'd still be sitting there rambling. I learned very quickly that my body language could help deter this activity without me having to be rude or disengaging. "Do you have a minute?" He'd start to walk in the door before I would answer and I would throw my hand up in the "stop" mode. Right now, can I get you on my calendar for later today? "His answer was always," Oh. No, I just came by to say hello. "That one gesture changed the whole dynamic of the conversation. There are 4 types of communication that are present in our lives: verbal, non-verbal, written and visual.

Verbal Communication: Verbal communication includes sounds, words, language and speaking. Language is said to have originated from sounds and gestures. There are many languages ​​spoken in the world. The bases of language formation are: gender, class, profession, geographic area, age group and other social elements. Speaking is an effective way of communicating and is again classified into two types viz. Interpersonal communication and public speaking. Good verbal communication is an inseparable part of business communication. In a business, you come across people from various ages, cultures and races. Fluent verbal communication is essential to deal with people in business meetings. Also, in business communication self-confidence plays a vital role which when clubbed with fluent communication skills can lead to success. Public speaking is another verbal communication in which you have to address a group of people. Preparing for an effective speech before you start is important. In public speaking, the speech must be prepared according to the type of audience you are going to face. The content of your speech should be authentic and you must have enough information on the topic you have chosen for public speaking. All the main points in your speech must be highlighted and these points should be delivered in the correct order. There are many public speaking techniques and these techniques must be practiced for an effective speech.

Non-Verbal Communication: Non-verbal communication involves physical ways of communication, like, tone of voice, touch, smell and body motion. Creative and aesthetic non-verbal communication including singing, music, dancing and sculpture. Symbols and sign language are also included in non-verbal communication. Body language is a non-verbal way of communication. Body posture and physical contact convey a lot of information. Body post matters a lot when you are communicating verbally to someone. Folded arms and crossed legs are some of the signals delivered by a body posture. Physical contact, like, shaking hands, pushing, patting and touching expresses the feeling of intimacy. Facial expressions, gestures and eye contact are all different ways of communication. Reading facial expressions can help you know a person better.

Written Communication: Written communication is writing the words which you want to communicate. Good written communication is essential for business purposes. Written communication is practiced in many different languages. E-mails, reports, articles and memos are some of the ways of using written communication in business. The written communication can be edited and amended many times before it is communicated to the second party to wh the communication is intended. This is one of the main advantages of using writing as the major means of communication in business activity. Written communication is used not only in business but also for informal communication purposes. Mobile SMS is an example of informal written communication.

Visual communication: The last type of communication out of the four types of communication, is the visual communication. Visual communication is visual display of information, like, topography, photography, signs, symbols and designs. Television and video clips are the electronic form of visual communication.

What is Your Communication Style? I come from a family where being direct is considered combative. To me, honesty is the best policy and the only way to be honest is to be direct. Of course that ends up causing conflict between myself, my mother and my siblings because they would rather agree with the person to their face then disagree behind the scenes. My style is direct and their style is harmonious (with a bit of passive aggressiveness in my opinion, but that's a blog for another time!) I have adjusted my style to reduce the conflict and I have learned to get my point across without ruffling anyone's Feathers. Does it always work? No, but it has reduced my stress and those around me. It is critically important to know your style of communication and recognize the style of others so that you can learn to be flexible in your message without compromising it and drastically reduce the possibility of miscommunication. I found an interesting article that had some critically important information relative to communication style: The 21 most important words in the English language:

The two most important words:

Thank You

The three most important words:

All is forgiven

The four most important words:

What is your opinion

The Five most important words:

You did a good job

The six most important words:

I want to understand you better

The least important word:

I "

The Power of Listening: There is nothing that will derail effective communication sooner than one of the parties not really listening to the other. This recently happened to a client with the financial aid office of the University of Michigan, where his child attends school. Every single person that he has deal with in that office since his child first attended there in 2009 had been short, curt and robotic in conveying the Federal guidelines for student aid. Clearly, there is a budget that they adhere to and there is no going outside the box, which is a total disconnect for him as the recipient of financial aid when he attended the Western Michigan University years ago. HIs perception was that the financial aid office exists to help student find a way to fund their education when they do not have money out of pocket to cover the entire cost. The University of Michigan's Financial Aid Office employees make it clear through their words and non-verbal communication that their mission is to limit the amount of funds that that go to each student to meet some secret budget goal. He tried on several occasions to explain this to the head of the department and each time she twisted it around and blamed him for misunderstanding the counselers, or not following their guidelines, or taking what was said out of context. Not once did she acknowledge that she heard what my client was saying or that she would try and help him find financial resources to help him cover the $ 26,000 annual cost of school. His child asked, "How can I find more money to go to school?" The counselor responded, "By getting married, having a baby, joining the military or your parents dying." He said, "None of those are a remote possibility, to which he responded," Well maybe you should have chosen a school that was more affordable to you. "His child worked hard to get accepted to U of M and he worked hard to Save enough money for him to go there. "The counselor was actually conveying the Federal guidelines of student aid to him, but it was the way he conveyed it that was totally inappropriate. Was very defensive and blamed the entire issue on me in that he was not accepting that these were the guidelines. They were telling his son in terms of getting more aid. The last exchange my client had with the department head, she said, "Please accept my apologies for any response you feel was inappropriate." My client did not feel the responses were inappropriate , They were. He totally understands the Federa L guidelines, and she repeatedly and robotically recited them to him over and over and over again, missing the point. Putting the blame back on my client and his son clearly showed she never listened what I was trying to say and my client was not heard. That's an unfortunate gap between a parent and a major function at a major institution.

Managing Conflict: To say my client had a conflict with the U of M financial aid office is an understatement. It was a major communication breakdown, one I'm sure he'll pay the price for at a later date – literally. However it is a normal part of life to have conflict at home, in the workplace, in any situation where two or more people are exchanging information. What is key is how we manage conflict and bring it to successful resolution. In the case of the financial aid office, my client has agreed to disagree, take what they will give and find another resource to cover the gap in tuition. The head of that office will never get what was said to her and he can live with that, it's her loss. There are many effective ways to defuse a tense situation and one thing that has been successful is to decide – what can you live with and what are you not willing to budge on? Knowing conflict happens and being armed with tools to manage through it and resolve it are keys to having the right mindset while it is happening. My client's situation was unfortunate but not personal and I guarantee he is not the first nor will he be the last to experience a brick wall when it comes to the U of M financial aid office. Removing the emotion and defusing the situation helped bring this to a reasonable conclusion.

How Your Attitude Affects Communication: Every attitude is a combination of feelings, beliefs and evaluations. Behavior refers to the reactions or actions of an object or organism and attitude predicts behavior. Persuasive communication changes attitudes, which then affects behavior, which then creates a more productive environment. Persuasive communication involves openly trying to convince another to change their behavior and only works when the source is credible and trustworthy. Addressing trust and credibility first among your coworkers and other critical relationships you have lays a strong foundation. Learning to clearly state your position, followed by supporting arguments and obtaining others' agreement are the keys to persuasion.

Giving and Receiving Feedback: Feedback is a type of communication that we give or get. Sometimes, feedback is called "criticism," but this seriously limits its meaning.

Feedback is a way to let people know how effective they are in what they are trying to accomplish, or how they affect you. It provides a way for people to learn how they affect the world around them, and it helps us to become more effective. If we know how other people see us, we can overcome problems in how we communicate and interact with them. Of course, there are two sides to it: giving feedback, and receiving it.

Getting Feedback: Some people experience feedback as pure criticism and do not want to hear it. Others see it as spiritually crushing; A confirmation of their worthlessness. Still others only want to hear praise, but nothing that might suggest imperfection. That's not the case for everyone, of course. Some people are willing to accept feedback and seek it out, even if it is sometimes disturbing, because they believe they can grow from it. It comes down to whether you believe feedback will harm you or benefit you.

This is not to say that we should always have to accept feedback or the manner in which it is sometimes given. We all have the right to refuse feedback, and we can expect feedback to be given in a respectful and supportive manner. But for every positive and open way of accepting feedback, there's an opposite; A negative and closed manner which pushes feedback away and keeps it at bay.

Negative / Closed Style

Defensive: defends personal actions, frequently objects to feedback given. Attacking: verbally attacks the feedback giver, and turns the table. Denies: refutes the accuracy or fairness of the feedback. Disrespectful: devalues ​​the speaker, what the speaker is saying, or the speaker's right to give feedback. Closed: ignores the feedback, listening blankly without interest. Inactive listening: makes no attempt to "hear" or understand the meaning of the feedback. Rationalizing: finds explanations for the feedback that dissolve any personal responsibility. Patronizing: listens, but shows little interest. Superficial: listens and agreements, but gives the impression that the feedback will have little actual effect.

Positive / Open Style

Open: listens without frequent interruption or objections. Responsible: willing to hear what's being said without turning the table. Accepting: accepts the feedback, without denial. Respectful: recognizes the value of what is being said and the speaker's right to say it. Engaged: interacts appropriately with the speaker, asking for clarification when needed. Active listening: listens carefully and tries to understand the meaning of the feedback. Thoughtful: tries to understand the personal behavior that has led to the feedback. Interested: is genuinely interested in getting feedback. Sincere: genially want to make personal changes if appropriate.

Giving Feedback

The other end of feedback is giving it. Some people deliver feedback with relish; After all, it's easier to give advice than take it. Some use feedback as a weapon, or offer it as tit-for-tat. For others, feedback is a great way to be critical. How you deliver feedback is as important as you accept it, because it can be experienced in a very negative way. To be effective you must be tuned in, sensitive, and honest when giving feedback. Just as there are positive and negative approaches to accepting feedback, so too are there ineffective and effective ways to give it.

Ineffective / Negative Delivery

Attaching: hard hitting and aggressive, focusing on the weaknesses of the other person. Indirect: feedback is vague and issues Hinted at rather than addressed directly. Insensitive: little concern for the needs of the other person. Disrespectful: feedback is demeaning, bordering on insulting. Judgmental: feedback is evaluative, judging personality rather than behavior. General: aimed at broad issues which can not be easily defined. Poor timing: given long after the prompting event, or at the worst possible time. Impulsive: given thoughtlessly, with little regard for the consequences. Selfish: feedback meets the giver's needs, rather than the needs of the other person.

Effective / Positive Delivery

Supportive: delivered in a non-threatening and encouraging manner. Direct: the focus of the feedback is clearly stated. Sensitive: delivered with sensitivity to the needs of the other person. Considerate: feedback is intended to not insult or demean. Descriptive: focuses on behavior that can be changed, rather than personality. Specific: feedback is focused on specific behaviors or events. Healthy timing: given as close to the prompting event as possible and at an opportune time. Thoughtful: well considered rather than impulsive. Helpful: feedback is intended to be of value to the other person.

The Importance of Feedback

Feedback is a must for people who want to have honest relationships. A powerful and important means for communication, giving feedback connects us, and our behavior, to the world around us.

Communication and the Digital Age: There are now multiple means of causing communication barriers between people; Texting, Facebook-ing, Twittering, instant messaging, voice mail and email to name a few. Stephen Covey's Time Management program preaches for us to be the master of technology versus letting technology being our master. I recently attended a baseball game and when I looked around the stadium, I saw a sea of ​​people looking at their cell phones. They were texting, taking pictures, uploading them to Facebook, talking – it was a new age of mass media blitz. I frequently get instant messages from clients and potential clients asking me in-depth life changing questions and expecting a simple answer in return. It's hard to be an effective communicator in the digital age without we learn how to use these means in a persuasive and appropriate manner. A client of mine has an employee who regularly fires off scathing emails. My client gets constant complaints about the employee who is perceived as being combative and abrasive. I advised her to sit down with the employee, show her examples of the appropriate emails, advise her to a 24-hour "cool down" period, then initially reviewing the emails with someone they can trust before hitting the send key. A month later the client reported that 9 out of 10 emails were scrapped before sending. The employee then learned the skill of not reacting via email to other communication that was angering her. It is especially important in this economic climate where we're doing much more with much less and tensions are high.

Ask yourself the following questions:

How would your professional and personal life change if you could successfully master these basic skills? Can you afford not to make the investment to improve your communication? You will be amazed at the startling turn your life will take once you learn how to communicate effectively and successfully. Did you know that the most important asset to a company or to a client is a person who communicates effectively, someone who has the ability to influence and persuade others? Are you communicating successfully and effectively to influence others or are you just talking?

I. 2007, Stoney deGeyter; Pole Position Marketing. Ii. 2009, Phil Rich, Ed.D., MSW, DCSW; Self-Help Magazine.

Computer Appreciation For Beginners (Part 1)

To those who really want to be perfect in computer operation and understanding, this article which will come in 'parts' will lead you gently from the basics of computer to the complex usage of the software in the system. Before one starts using the programs in the system, he or she wants understand the system components and their usage. And so I wish to let you know of the meaning of computer and probably the generations of computer.

Definition of a Computer System
Computer is defined in so many ways by so many people based on their field of specialization. A computer is a set of interrelated and interactive devices, which uses electronic components to perform a prefefined operation with accuracy. But generally, a computer system may simply be defined as an electronic device, which is capable of accepting data as input, process the data, store the data and provide a result as output in human readable form. The four basic parts of a computer are Monitor, Keyboard, Mouse and System unit.

A Brief History of Computer
Computer history and development is always traced to Charles Babbage, the Father of computers and Lady Ada Lovelace, the Mother of Programming. The computer we have come to use today perfectly without any much stress and difficulty was not invented the way we have seen but passed through series of processes and stages. There exist five generations of computer as briefly discussed below:

First Generation Computer (The Vacuum Tube Technology)
This generation of computers consists of computers developed between 1944 and 1959. ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator), EDSAC (Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Computers) and UNIVAC 1 and 11 are first generation computers. This generation of computers were very bulky, dissipates a lot of heat, some were very heavy, weighing up to 200 tons. Because of the heat, they needed special cooling system. The characteristic technology of this generation was the use of vacuum tubes as the basic building blocks for the logic parts of the computers. In terms of speed they were very slow compared with computers of later generations.

Second Generation Computer (The Transistor Technology)
The technology, which gave the distinguishing characteristics of the second-generation computers, was the transistor technology. Although this device was developed in 1948 in Bell Telephone Laboratories, and was used largely in the electronic world, it was not until 1959 that it was introduced in the manufacture of computers. These transistors replaced the bulky vacuum tubes. In addition to doing everything that the vacuum tube could do, the transistors would do so with greater reliability, with less power requirement, generate less heat, less cost to manufacture and much smaller in size. The computers developed between 1959 and 1964 are called the second-generation computers. Examples: IBM 7030, 7070, 7090, 7094, Boroughs 200 series, UNIVAC III, Honey-well 800 etc. The development of high level programming languages ​​like FORTRAN and COBOL was another innovation bought by the second-generation computers and were 10 times faster than the first.

Third Generation Computers (Integrated Circuit Technology)
Between 1964 and 1971, the third generation computers were developed. It was the technology of integrated circuits that opened the gates to the third generation computers. In fact we can say that the integrated circuit technology really revolutionized the computer technology itself. Integrated circuits are attached to a small piece of silicon chip. This technology cam progressively from Small Scale Integration (SSI), which contained about twenty interconnected transistors and diodes, through the Medium Scale Integration (MSI) which had over hundred interconnected transistors on a single chip, to Large Scale Integration (LSI) of over tens Of thousand of transistors and diodes on a single chip. The achievements of the Integrated circuit technology led to even faster, more reliable, cheap and small-sized computers, which powers were multiple of those of the earlier generations. In deed, this generation of computers wave birth to the mini computers, which power of operation was more than the early generation, greater reliability and speed, yet was far less in size and in cost. They could do hundred times as many calculations per second and hundred times faster than their second-generation counterparts could. Examples: IBM 31360 – 31370 series, CDC 6600, 7600, Boroughs B5000 and PDP II series.

The Fourth Generation Computers (VLSIC Micro Technology
The very large-scale integrated circuit (VLSIC), made possible by the micro technology of the period 1971-1982 ushered in the fourth generation of computers. VLSIC has between 5,000 and 50,000 gates (transistors), upon which micro-processors were built. The effect of this technology was smaller and smaller but more and more powerful computers which speed and reliability trivialized those of the earlier generations. This era also produced the micro-computers that could do the job of first generation large computers with thousands of times faster speed and affordable prices even by individual. This generation also produced a wide variety of software packages like word processing packages, graphics, games, spreadsheet packages and database management systems. Networking capabilities were also enhanced in this era. Examples of the fourth generation computers include the IBM 3033, HP 3000 mini computers, Apple II, Boroughs B7700.

Fifth Generation Computers (Era of Artificial Intelligence)
The technology of this generation of computers is characterized by Super Large Scale Integration (ULSI), Ultra Large Scale Integration (ULSI), parallel processing, Artificial Intelligence, Speech Processing, Pattern Recognition and Expert System. The distinguishing characteristics of this generation of computer are their tremendous speed and power. Continuous miniaturization of computers is the order of the day, newer, smaller, more powerful computers are seen day by day. Powerful microcomputers have today dwarfed the capacity of the older days mainframe. Pentium II mother board with clock speed higher than 300 MHz and hard disk storage space over 20 Gigabytes with unbelievable capabilities, are now affordable by even low income earners. Networking, ranging from local, wide area to Iwets are the common features of this generation of computers and has reduced the whole world into a global village.

Yahoo Reverse Phone Lookup Does not Work, Try This Instead

A Yahoo reverse phone lookup may seem like what you need, but is it? Making sure you're doing the right type of search is important before you spend time trying to dig up information that just might be inaccurate and extremely outdated. Make sure you read through this entire guide so you do not make the same mistake countless others do when trying to perform a Yahoo reverse phone lookup.

If you've got a mysterious 10 digit phone number that keeps calling, leaving threatening messages or calling at all hours of the night then you might want to consider a reverse telephone search, but make sure you use the right service before spending time or money On one. The fact of the matter is a Yahoo reverse phone lookup will only work on numbers that are publicly listed land lines. Surveys and research show that a growing number of people are using their cellular phones as their home numbers, making them unsearchable via Yahoo or any other public directory for that matter. So what can you do?

The only real option is to use a privately held database. You've probably seen these before and not even realized what it was. Basically how they work is you able to search for a number regardless of carrier or if it's a cell phone or land line and you can get the name and address of the owner in just a few seconds flat. Every day more and more people are using these services since the traditional manual lookup is almost completely unreliable these days. The information is mostly outdated and it just does not work for cell phones or newer telephone carriers.

If You Want to Communicate Brilliantly, You Must Master the Golden Triangle of Communications

Because the three communication skills that generate win-win solutions, and build trust and respect, are:

* LISTENING to the answers generated by,

* ASKING many questions, and

* SUMMARISING periodically, as a means of feedback.

Do you want to be a brilliant communicator? Do you want to influence others easily? Is it part of your self improvement programme? If so, learn to listen, ask and summarise.

Let’s look a bit more closely at each of them.

Listening is the single most important and effective of the communication skills. If you want to be a great conversationalist or you want to be great at establishing rapport, and building relationships with others, or you want to be in control, and influence people, learn to listen. This is not the same as hearing though. It is defined as: making a deliberate effort to understand the significance of what is heard

This means that when you register a sound (hear it) you do some work inside your minds and body – you put in some effort (you listen to it). For example, you interpret the sound to determine, does it matter? You question what the meanings of the sound might be. You associate the sound with other experiences in your internal mental and emotional databases. You ask if the sound needs a response and, if so, what? You think about the implications of the sound for you and others and, internally, you ask many questions about it. In this way, you are making a deliberate effort to understand the significance of what you heard – you are listening. To listen is hard work, as it requires high levels of mental energy and concentration.

In any communication between people there are two things going on at the same time (at least). On one level, there is the content of the communication – what are they communicating about? On another level, there is the process and the relationship – how and why are they communicating? This may include, for example: are they communicating in ways that are building trust or suspicion? Are they creating mutual respect or disdain? Are they enjoying the experience? Will their relationship be stronger or weaker as a result of this communication? Listening can be geared to either one or both of these levels. There is also another language that needs “listening” to – body language – with skillful observation and interpretation.

Asking means questioning, of course, and there are different types of questions and they achieve different things. Listed below are seven really useful types of question:

1. specific, precise, closed questions – very useful for getting accurate, factual information (provided the person answering tells the truth). This type of question will usually get you the facts but that may be all you get. If you want to get things flowing a bit more, you will need to use open-ended questions.

2. open-ended questions – very useful for getting the other person to talk and share opinions.

Great when you are not sure what you’re looking for or when you want to build relationships and establish rapport or when you want to be in the receiver mode.

3. if you combine 2. and 1. above, in that order, you will create funnel questions. Funnel questions work like a funnel in the sense that they start very wide (open-ended questions); you listen to the answers and select something to ask a question about in more detail (your questions are getting narrower); you listen to the answers you get now and ask even more focused questions to funnel in (i.e. specific, precise, closed questions).

4. comparative questions – ask a person to think about a situation, think about a different situation and compare them. Comparative questions are very good for revealing what matters to someone and what they value

5. summarising questions – great for checking out that the messages that are being communicated are being understood as they were intended. They also help you to stay in control and to ensure that you, and others, don’t drift off all over the place (unless you want to, of course).

6. short questions – intended to keep you, the receiver, receiving, and the other person talking, as well as making progress on whatever the communication is about. Short questions are most typically the six words: “what?; who?; when?; how?; where?; and why?”. The most probing of these questions is, “why?”. Depending on the situation, handle this question with consideration for the other person as it may come across as aggressive or cause the other person to feel inadequate.

7. the seventh type of question is the absence of a spoken question – it is a pause or silence.

In some situations, especially if your communication with another person has reached a sensitive point, the approach that will get the best response is to shut up, maintain supportive eye contact and body language, and wait. Most people don’t like the silence that ensues and the other person may well speak out revealing more information. There is, of course, a judgement to be made here as pauses or silences that go on too long may be embarrassing and weaken rapport. The judgement is, how long is too long?

Summarising means accurately repeating back the message that has been transmitted. It is time and effort very well spent because it will:

* ensure understanding

* demonstrate that active listening is taking place

* build relationships (e.g. trust, respect, mutual support)

* confirm or clarify key points

* explore any perceived contradictions

* explore any new information

* reinforce openness and honesty

* confirm common ground

* create opportunities to correct any errors in the communication process.

Summarising is really valuable but is too often rarely seen in communications. It is a great test of listening, of course. If you can’t summarise accurately what has been said, you probably were not listening in the first place (which is pretty insulting to the others, isn’t it?).

In summary, it is the golden triangle of communication skills – listening, asking and summarising – that is the key to achieving great solutions and building trust and respect with others.