The Human Body Maintenance System

The human body consists of organs and organ systems which work together to maintain both internal and external conditions of the body. The importance of the human body’s maintenance system is indeed very high. Individuals can easily get sick due to the imbalances of the internal conditions and different fluctuations that can occur anytime due to any cause. External conditions can greatly affect the internal conditions of the human body especially when the immune system or other systems work inefficiently within the human body. There are several factors causing these changes and fluctuations. However, the human body tries its best to maintain the right condition or the dynamic equilibrium (which is around 37 degrees Celsius).

The basic maintenance system works with blood vessels, tissues, and tissue fluids as they are important factors to regulate changes in the body condition. By adding or removing the substances from blood vessels, tissues, and tissue fluids, the five main body systems work effectively to reach dynamic equilibrium.

The Five Main Systems

One of the most important systems is the lymphatic system. The system works by protecting blood cells from contracting all kinds of diseases. The respiratory system consists of the lungs. The lungs are responsible for the breathing process which requires the intake of Oxygen and the removal of Carbon Dioxide. The digestive system consists of the standard organs like the stomach, the intestines, gallbladder, liver, and other accessory organs which include: mouth, teeth, tongue, the salivary gland, and the esophagus. The digestive system mainly accepts the intake of food and has the ability to digest them into nutrients and substances the body needs. It is important to know all organs and parts play major roles in each system. For example, the saliva plays an important role in the first step of digestion. Because it contains an enzyme called Amylase, which breaks down starch into sugar, the digestive system is able to work efficiently in process as it then sends the food substances to the stomach then to the intestines to continue the process. The last system which helps in maintaining the body’s equilibrium is the urinary system. The urinary system helps to maintain the body’s temperature as it gets rid of nitrogenous wastes, helps regulate the fluid level, and maintain the chemical content of blood in the body. The urinary system generally flushes out wastes not needed by the human body. The system consists of the urinary bladder and the kidneys.

Reproduction and Development

The reproduction process of human beings is as similar as birth processes of other organisms. Through the natural process which requires help from both female and male organs located around the pubic area, humans reproduce and is able to develop future generations. The female reproduction system consists of the ovary, the vagina, the uterine tube, and the external genitalia. The male reproductive system includes the testis and the penis. The testis is where the conduction of semen starts where it then sends the sperms out through the penis.

Looking Deeper into Homeostasis

Homeostasis is basically the maintenance of the human body’s dynamic equilibrium. To maintain the right condition of the human body, there are several requirements.

The body needs to reach dynamic equilibrium as explained in the earlier paragraphs. If any rapid change occurs within the body, the organs and the systems have to work together through two methods: negative feedback and positive feedback. These two methods will allow adaptation to occur through primary homeostatic mechanism which includes the sensor, the control center, and the effecter.

Negative Feedback

The negative feedback generally works by disabling the sensor which is activated in the beginning of the adaptation process. Once the temperature in the body has changed or if any other substances unknown to the human body enter the system, the sensor activates itself. Once the sensor activates itself, it sends signals to the control center which will awake the effecter to make its move in the infected area or problem. The sensor, though, is to be deactivated once the signals were sent to the effecter; this is mainly the reason why the whole process is called the negative feedback. To make things simpler, compare the negative feedback with the process of photosynthesis in plants. Once the high level of carbon dioxide is detected by the sensor, it sends signals to the control center which allows more light to be taken up in the process as the intake of carbon is too high. The effecter makes several changes while the sensor already deactivates itself.

The Positive Feedback

The positive feedback is the total opposite of the negative feedback as the difference is that the sensor remains active throughout the process. The positive feedback mainly has the intention to push levels out of normal ranges and thereby increase the stimulus. The easiest way to illustrate positive feedback would be when blood platelet accumulation occurs in the body. Blood platelet accumulation occurs and causes blood clots in the infected area due to a cut or a tear in the lining of blood vessels. Also, during childbirth, the release of Oxytocin that helps intensify contractions is one of the best examples to illustrate positive feedback. Once Oxytocin is released during contractions, the sensor that releases the Oxytocin still does not stop or deactivates as the process still needs to support and safeguard the mother with similar substance during heavy bleed.

4 Types of Lubrication Systems

Lubrication systems are designed to lubricate various parts of industrial machinery or equipment to minimize issues with wear or friction that can shorten the usable life of the hardware. The oil or grease used to lubricate the machinery can run on a timer to make sure the parts are kept running smooth at all times. There are several types of lubrication systems to match the specific needs.

Here are four of the most popular types of lubrication systems:

Single line progressive

The single line progressive system has a built-in time controller and operates by pumping oil or grease through a supply line that leads to a main distributor that directs the flow to the relevant parts or components. This is an easy system to operate and only relies on a single metering piston for control, and can easily lubrication up to 150 different points. This system is great for medium-sized applications like print machines, wind turbines and industrial presses.

Single line lubrication

The single line lubrication system is a very flexible choice and makes it possible to scale the setup because of its modular design. The system uses hydraulic pressure to move the oil or grease around the distribution network. This is a useful system for sending the variable volumes of lubricant to the different parts of the machinery. It is easy to operate and automatically sends the set amount of lubricant throughout the system. The single line lubrication system is the preferred choice for small to medium-sized machinery, such as those used in textile, printing and construction.

Dual line lubrication

The dual line lubrication system is a practical choice for the large system with the dispersal of oil or grease sent at a controlled volume to match the specific parts of the machinery. This system makes use of hydraulic pressure to distribute the lubricant, and includes metering devices for the most effective distribution. It is a versatile setup that is easy to extend or reduce and useful in several heavy industries, such as mineral processing, paper production, metal working plants and cement factories. Plus, this is a practical choice for machinery that is located in low temperature environments.

Sing Point automatic lubrication

The single point automatic system is useful for the machinery that needs the single and precise application of lubricant to a certain part. This system is great for elevators, conveyors, pumps, electric motors, or other parts that need frequent lubrication.

Cellular Phone Scanners – How Mobile Phone Scanners Work

Cellular phone scanners are devices that are used to intercept and monitor conversations through mobile phones. These are commonly used in law enforcement and by private detectives who are specially commissioned to track suspicious individuals. In some cases, they can also be used by businesses to record phone conversations with clients for proper documentation of transactions.

Types of scanners

There are two general types of cellular phone scanners: the analog and digital devices. Analog type scanners can intercept cellular communications with AMPS analog devices. AMPS refers to the original telephone standard that a number of analog units used in the United States. Due to an equipment for location finding that was used by 911, however, many cellular companies have started using both digital and analog signals in data transmission since March 2005. As such, analog cell phone scanners were only able to intercept and hear one side of analog conversations. This is why it’s now impractical to invest in analog devices these days.

On the other hand are the digital cell phone scanner. These are devices that can intercept communications made through new digital handsets. These scanners usually come with recorders and most models are able to monitor as many as 20 conversations at the same time. Digital cell phone scanners can be quite expensive and their use is typically exclusive to government agencies and law enforcers. Even the mere use of these devices by authorized personnel will still require a court order.

Buying guidelines

If you’re looking to purchase cellular phone scanner for whatever reason, you need to understand the legalities surrounding the use of these devices particularly if you’re not a law enforcer. Mere possession of a cell phone scanner can put you at risk of facing lawsuits for invasion of privacy among others.

Mobile Phone Tracking – Locate Anyone Anywhere by Cell Phone

Mobile phone tracking is a system that works to track the current position of a cell phone no matter where the owner is located. This technology allows a phone’s location to be uploaded to a website where friends and family members get to view the person’s last reported position. The tracking of anyone, anywhere through his or her mobile phone is made even easier and practical with free phone tracking systems.

In order to locate or track a phone by using this tracking system, it must emit a roaming signal that can be detected by a nearby tower which has a communication antenna. GSM localization which uses multi-lateration that is based on the strength of the phone signal will then determine the location of the cell phone to locate the user. Location based services that use mobile positioning will disclose the exact coordinates of the user.

An advanced free cellphone tracking system allows for a more accurate location in which the mobile phone is present and is able to produce an estimate distance to the base station. Approximation by interpolating signals that travel between the two antenna towers will then give a much accurate location. In urban areas, mobile phone tracking services can reach close to 50 meters as the mobile traffic and density of antenna towers are very high. However, mobile phones that are located in rural regions that are far from base stations will not be precisely located through the service.

The use of latest cellphones is more easily located by mobile phone tracking systems as they contain inbuilt phone tracker system which emits signals even when they are not in active calls. Estimation of the location of the mobile phone and its user is easy through comparison of relative signals and their strength from various antenna towers. With the help of roaming procedures, the location is estimated in a matter of seconds.

With the latest technology in the cellphones tracking front, you are now able to use it to ensure the security of your loved ones or for finding stolen or lost mobile phones.

Key Telephone Systems Vs VoIP-IP PBX Phone Systems

What is the difference between a Key Telephone System & a PBX Phone System? With the introduction of VoIP or IP Phone Systems, this old-technology question is becoming all the more relevant in your final decision to purchase the right phone system today.

I have cut and pasted the following text from a Google search, just to show you a classic example of a technically correct explanation for this question that would not only be technical jargon to you, but also throw up a bunch of new questions.

A key system has telephones with multiple buttons that permit the user to directly select the telephone company’s central office phone lines. A key telephone system (KTS) is not a switch.

A private branch exchange (PBX) allows several trunks (outside lines) from the central office to be shared and the switching for selecting these lines is within the PBX. A PBX is sometimes referred to as a phone switch.

Key systems are usually found in small companies where few features are required. A PBX is usually found in larger companies that need more capabilities.

Was I right?


– What is a switch? What is central office?- I didn’t quite understand why PBX is a phone switch and the KTS is not a switch?

– Why do I care? All I want is one phone on my desk for all my lines.

– It is great to get lots of features, but I still don’t know what I need and what I don’t.

– I am a small business, so do I have to look out for a Key Telephone System?

– Is the PBX Phone system not for me?

– Is the PBX more expensive?

– Well I don”t want to be stuck with something that is having few features, so what do I do?

– What are the features that a Key Telephone System has and the PBX doesn’t?

– I do know somebody who has a business phone system and he says its a PBX… he has a staff of six!! And I am confused! Did he get cheated? or Did he pay too much for something he didn’t need?

– Gosh, I can understand that there are different makes and models, but now I have to deal with different architectures in phone systems?

– Help!

Ok. Here is our version of the explanation…

And this is really the most important thing you will ever need to know in today’s market, where there are hundreds of new phone systems with VoIP technology, IP PBX Systems, IP Phone Systems that are competing with the Panasonic, Nortel, Avaya, NEC, Samsung types.

Just recently during a sales meeting, a prospective client was all in favour of the new VoIP PBX, but it was this KEY difference, (no pun intended!) that made them reject the VoIP PBX and choose the Traditional Key Telephone System from a well established manufacturer.

What was this “key “difference?

Key System Functionality is seen when each business phone or extension connected to your business phone system is able to have a button (called Line or CO Button) dedicated for each Phone Line that you have for calling out i.e. the local telephone company or CO lines.

When you press this Line Button on your phone, you are actually connected to one of the CO Lines from your phone company.

Lets say you have subscribed for 4 business telephone lines from your local phone company then you will have Line 1, Line 2, Line 3 and Line 4 Buttons on your business phone.

You are able to pick and choose what ever line you want to dial out. Also if one of the lines is faulty you will actually hear a crackling or if it is dead then you will hear nothing except a slight hiss. In short you are able to SEE all your lines coming into the office.

You are also able to see the status when someone in the office is using any of the CO Lines, because the corresponding Line Button will be lit up RED or have a Black Triangle against it (this feature is available in all business phone systems with slight variations.) If you press this Lit up Line Button, it will beep at you and if you have a display, it will show you the current status as LINE BUSY.

Based on my experience in the practical world, KEY Telephone Systems HAVE All and more features than PBX phone systems.

In fact this very feature of Having Line Buttons or Line Presence is a HUGE factor for most small businesses who usually have about 3 to 8 CO Lines and about 3 to 25 phones.

And what is a PBX Telephone System?

In fact, the PBX Telephone System, in the practical sense, does not have the Line Presence feature or CO Line Button feature at all!

Which makes the PBX System a bit inferior when compared to a Key Telephone System. Doesn’t it? Well, take my word..this is true. Key Telephone Systems have all the features you will possibly need, whether you are a big business or a small business.

It is true, though, that if you are a very very large business , like Microsoft, or GE or AT&T etc. i.e if you need lots and lots of CO Lines than the number of buttons on your business phone, then you would go for a pure PBX Telephone System.

(That doesn’t mean you cannot use a Key Telephone System for large organizations…Key Telephone Systems can be SETUP as PBX systems, but PBX systems CANNOT be setup as Key Telephone Systems.)

How do you setup a Key Telephone System as a PBX?

Very simple. Just remove all Line Buttons from your Key Telephone, and use “9” on your dial pad to get the first available line to dial out. That’s the exact difference between an IP PBX and the Traditional Phone System. You will not be able to put a line on hold at one phone, and take it on another phone. Simply because you do not have individual line buttons on an IP PBX Phone.

A PBX or Private Branch Exchange, is a business phone system that doesn’t need the ability to have Line Presence on all its business phones or extensions. Now there are technical differences in how they work, as a switch, etc etc. but when it comes to your understanding,that is the KEY feature.

Both phone systems have the ability to handle multiple lines, multiple conversations, auto-attendant, voice mail boxes, for a wide range of office sizes.

The critical point is that most of the IP PBX Systems or IP Phone Systems or VoIP Phone Systems DO NOT have the Line Presence feature.

And if you think that’s important to you, just like our last client did, then please don’t opt for the IP PBX System! VoIP PBX or IP PBX may not be for everybody.

But if you do need some great features, unlimited voicemail ports, voice-mail to email, unlimited extension capability, menu driven web interface for programming, call centre features, off-site remote extension included in the base price, then this is the system for you.

The Teacher As Disciplinarian: Ten Ideas That Really Work!

Ten Ideas You Can Try Right Away

"Discipline is not the Enemy of Enthusiasm!"

– Morgan Freeman as Joe Clark

When it comes to Discipline in the schools, there are many well-publicized and well-marked "systems". People sometimes get carried away with systems, or programs, structures, textbooks, etc., arguing passionately, for example, that block scheduling is better than traditional scheduling, or integrated math is better than traditional math, or whole language is better than phonics, Or this discipline system is better than that discipline system. Similarly, real estate agents will include the name of various school districts in their advertisement for a particular home based on how beautiful the district's buildings are.

The focus, wrongly, is almost always placed on things, and not people. The truth of the matter is, and I'll wait while you etch it in stone, my system will do better than your system if my people believe in our system and are passionately committed to its success. So when you hear the arguments, ad nauseum, for this system over that system in the schools, know that it is not the "thing" that caused the success, but the caring and passionate people working within the system.

The rules of golf, my friends, state that you are allowed to have 14 clubs in your bag. In the "golf course" of life in the schools, do you remember the teacher who only had a "driver" in his or her bag?

As we approach the topic of School Discipline, we must begin with the a priori acknowledgment that the American Juvenile Justice System is built on a rehabilitative model. This starts with the understanding that kids- you were a kid too, remember- are not perfect, that they will make mistakes, and that it is our duty as grownups to help them acquire the social skills needed to function as a productive individuals in society . If the Juvenile Justice system is set up this way, then how much more so must the school disciplinary approach be one that attempts to assist young people so that they improve their inappropriate behavior and become productive individuals? Naturally, this means that kids are expected to get second and third chances, and some attempts at modifying behavior may take several years.

If the people who work in the schools were able to actually "fly the plane" in all respects, there would be no "Zero Tolerance" policies, either, and you would not read about kindergartens kids getting expelled for having a nail file, or Because they cave a member of the opposite sex a hug. These coward politicians love to show how tough they are passing by legislation to expel kindergarten children for hugging somebody or having a pocket knife. Media people, please listen: No real educator would ever come up with a policy like that- even criminals get three strikes- the one strike baseball game was concocted by politicians trying to get votes, not the educators you criticize when this tragedy occurs!

In the Broadway Show Bye Bye Birdie, Paul Lynde, bemoaning the behavior of teenagers "today" (circa 1960) sings in one of the songs this phrase- posed as a question … "Why can not we be like we were, Perfect in every way … what's the matter with kids today, etc.? " A school I attended as a child had this quote on the wall by John D. Rockefeller … "What I am to be, I am now becoming." So, everyone listen carefully … The kids you have right now or are going to have when you are out there teaching have not, unlike you, attained to perfection yet !!! However, throughout through your efforts, patience, and rehabilitation strategies, they may get a few steps closer to the target- but they are not there just yet. So you will have discipline problems.

There are still teachers around who make kids stand in the corner and hold a dictionary in their outstretched arms or have someone write the dictionary, or "I must not talk in class" 500 times. We have all heard the horror stories of actions taken by teachers that do nothing but guarantee that the student will continue to do the wrong thing- often with greater enthusiasm. Do not forget the line from Bye Bye Birdie … they are not perfect yet like you! Remember also that we are not selling a system in this book. You can buy books and take courses. Our purpose in this chapter is to give you a variety of tools- more like 14 clubs for your diplomatic "golf bag" if you will. These are strategies that have a high degree of success and can effect quick change.


1. Start With a Positive …

Very few kids are discriminate problems the first day of school or the first week of school. You probably already have an idea about the reputation of most of your students because the grapevine has informed you. The kids that have the potential to have problems have parents who usually are also aware that their child is a problem because that same child is a problem at home. So when these parents come to school angry at you the teacher, it's really a case of misplaced aggression because it is their kid who is driving them over the edge. These same parents have literally beaten on the telephone to me when they received good news about their child from the people at school- because it never happened before this. What's the message for you? While it's still early in the year- before the problems have characterized themselves, look for something positive that these potential problem individuals are doing and contact the parents to tell them the good thing that their child was doing.

Later, you will need the help of these parents to help change their child's behavior and they will remember this phone call and view you as a nice person- a fair person- maybe the first person in the school district who has ever said something nice about Their child. When you call later, you begin by saying … "Hi Mrs. Smith." This is Mr. Jones from the school. Mom will say that yes, she remembers you. You then say, "I need your help with something." Then you explain the discipline problem that her daughter is involved with and ask her if she could get involved at home and works, working together as a team, you and Mom can help the child to improve this problem she is now having. Most of the time, the parents will go out of their way to help you. They will also remember the child that you actually said something nice about them and we want to keep this nice teacher on our side- he's a friend. This potential problem child may start acting better anyway because he realizes that you also make good comments, not just negative ones like everyone else. This is an example of a teacher being PROACTIVE.

2. The Unknown Time-Out

Although this strategy works best with youngger students, used sparingly, it will also be equally effective with high school students. Make a plan with one of the secretaries, the Athletic Director, the Principal in a smaller school, or some other person- sometimes the Librarian, the Nurse, Custodian, etc. You can arrange multiple destinations for the Unknown Time-Out maneuver. When you have one or more particularly difficult students or ones that start well but get mixed up in any of the commotion that occurs in class, you call one of the students up to you desk, hand him a colored envelope that has something in it with The name of the person the envelope is going to on it. You tell the student to take this envelope to the person and wait for a response and then bring the response back.

When the recipient of the envelope sees that particular student or that colored envelope, he or she knows what is going on and tells the student to sit in the waiting area while they get the answer ready. Now they take 10 minutes to prepare the response, give it to the student and tell the student to take it back to you. This student just got a "Time-Out" lasting period 15 minutes without knowing it. This Proactive strategy kept the student from being yelled at again for what would have been his inevitable misbehavior, he has done something that seemed to be responsible, and so you the teacher commented on his reliability and thank him. The anticipated daily problem never occurred in the first place. In this process, the envelope, not the student, can be the indicator, so more than one teacher and additional students can be involved in this process. It is unlucky that the students- even high school students, will ever catch on to this strategy.

3. Inviting the Principal to Provide the Positive

If you had the pleasure to attend a Catholic Elementary School in the mid 50's, you may remember this- ruefully, I do. The report cards were distributed every 6 weeks, so every 6 weeks, the priest would come into class on a Friday to be involved in the process of handing out the report cards to 65 or so students in the class. As the Priest cave out the report cards, he always added a moment or two of editorializing. To this day, I have bad dreams about him saying … "Daniel. Hmmm. Let's see … My goodness, I know your Mother … The Poor Woman will be broken-hearted when she sees this awful report card. " Of course, everyone is sitting all prim and proper with their hands folded, but your buddies are looking at you and silently making faces and laughing all the while. All of this had quite the dramatic effect.

What's the message for you? DO NOT INVITE ANYONE IN FOR A NEGATIVE !!! But, invite the principal in and when he is there, publicly acknowledge the student by saying something like … "By the way Dr. Stevens (The Principal) Billy here has been one of my most improved students this report period- he is Doing some very nice work! " – Or, "Billy, why do not you show Dr. Stevens your excellent Social Studies project?" Billy has been doing some excellent work laately Dr. Stevens! The principal knows that this is his cue to congratulate the child and talk more about how nice it is to see students behaving this way, etc. This is another very proactive way to reinforce any positive behavior being shown by a student who does not show it that often.

4. The Sandwich Technique

The Sandwich Technique comes to us from the world of sports psychology and has been an effective tool for modifying behavior and encouraging people for over 30 years. It has application to almost every area of ​​human endeavor- in fact, you can even use it with your spouse. It begins by getting a person's attention by saying something positive. We say this because, for the most part, whether you are a spouse, an athlete, or a misbehaving child, your ears tend to close when you sense that a negative comment is coming your way- we all tend to tune this stuff out. So we get people's attention by saying something positive first- the ears perk up. The positive is followed by what we really wanted to say- the criticism or negative and any diplomatic action that might be occurring. It is followed by a final upbeat and positive comment. Thus the negative is the Peanut Butter and Jelly, and the positive in front and at the end are the two pieces of white bread.

We'll leave it to you how best to apply it in other walks of life, but consider how it can be used in the school setting by looking at the following hypothetical:

Johnny misbehaved in you class again today. He's actually an intelligent individual who simply is not working to the best of his ability. He has shown flashes of brilliance, but for the most part, is usually at the center of any commotion that goes on in class-he's been turning in some sloppy work just as well. Write a script of what you would say to Johnny making sure to apply the Sandwich Technique.

It might go like this: Johnny, you know that I like you- you and I have developed a pretty good friendship over the last couple of months have not we? That's why I am surprised that it is you I have to talk to so much. I have looked at your test scores and I have seen some of your work and it is excellent- you have the ability to be one of my bright students. Here's the problem, though … this is the fourth time in a row that you have turned in such sloppy work. So I am going to just keep giving it back to you till you do it correctly, and I do not care if it takes you a month to do it correctly. You will have to come in after school to redo the work, Also, if you do not change the quality of your work, then I am going to have Mom and Dad come in, and you know what your father said he would do if I Call him about you, do not you? What do you think would be a good way to fix this problem? (Avoiding the Yes-No question) All right. Let's get back to work, but I want you to know, I think you are a sharp kid, and I was just talking about you in a good way to Dr, Stevens. So let's start doing the work I know you are capable of. Etc. "

5. Divide and Conquer

In this situation, two students are a constant disruption in class. Take one of the students and treat him in a way that is a little less strident than the other. This can be done by rewarding one of the students for doing something right and making it seem as though he is not the real trouble maker in all of these class problems- it's the other guy. The second person will not stay too friendly with the first person, and the first person will begin to distance himself from the second person. You say to the first student, "You know Billy, I look at you as one of my better students and I do not think of you as a troublemaker like some students seem to be in this class. To improve this problem? (Again, not a yes-no) Following the private discussion, you move Billy making sure to explain to him that you want to get him away from the problems so he can do good work and not be bothered all the Time The partners in crime will not be so friendly with each other after you take this action.

6. The Phone Call From Class

Signal for the misbehaving child to join you in the hallway. Tell the child that you have your cell phone "right here in your hand", and if you ever see this kind of behavior again, you are going to call his or her Mom at her place of work right here from class and the child is Going to have to explain to her Mom the reason why the call is being made. The teacher then asks the student how happy he thinks his Mom is going to be to receive such a phone call from school when she is working? When he replies, "Not very happy", say, "Right, not very happy, so I expect to see some very quick improvement in your behavior- got that Billy? The next day, or for the next few weeks or so, if Billy is acting out, the teacher will surely holds the phone up and looks at it and then looks back to Billy. Will have on the other students, notably potential problem individuals when they find out that someone had to actually call his or her mother from class!

7. The Letter in the Drawer

Let's say that a child uses foul language in you class. First you tell him that this kind of language is not appropriate for class and that you and he are going to have to talk about this after class. Quietly, without any overreaction and typically after class, although there may be occasion to use this technique within the earshot of classmates, you tell the student the following: You are really surprised that a person like him would be speaking like that. You then tell him to write down what he said on a piece of paper. Make sure all of the words and details are included in the writing. Then, with a flourish, you place the writing in a business envelope and put a stamp on it and tell the student that normally, this would go directly into the mail with a phone call to let Mom know it is coming. Also, you dramatically write out a disciplinary referral.

Then you may tell the student that you are going to give him a detention for his behavior, but since you the teacher are such a nice person, you are going to keep this letter and the referral in your desk for mow. If this behavior ever occurs again though, both of these items are being sent along with a second mailing for the additional liability. Then you tell the student that this will stay in your desk till the end of the marking period at which time you will dispose of it if he, the child, continues to behave properly. Like the technique involving the cell phone, if the child is starting to misbehave a few days letter, you can point to the letter or the referral as a silent reminder. The child will get the point and probably appreciate your kindness.

8. Invite Mom to come in

This is a great technique for improving everyone's behavior because one visit to your class by someone's Mom who sits right next to her usually misbehaving child for one or more periods and everyone will have because they will fear that they might be next. Kids would rather have root canal than have Mom come in to sit next to them for an entire period or several periods. The process works like this: You make an effort ahead of time to establish a good working relationship with the Moms of some of your most significant problem individuals. You call Mom and invite her in because Junior is misbehaving. Mom comes to class and sits right next to her child and can remain for one or more days. Nobody wants to end this humiliation. Do it just once and many of your discipline problems will be over. The next day after the visitor leaves, the teacher can say … "Well, you saw a parent in here to visit because there were some problems I wanted her to see … who's next?" Do not expect any hands !!!

9. Involve the Guidance Counselor

Without fail, you will find guidance counsel more than happy to assist you in dealing with a student experiencing problems because it gives them the opportunity to do what they went to school to learn how to do. This is important to guidance counselers because, in the present national testing zeitgeist, they have all too often become the de facto assessment coordinators for their school. They have less time to actually counsel children because much of their time is being spent checking bubble sheets, counting booklets, and filling out forms for the state as well as sifting through mountains of paperwork related to special education, for example. As a teacher who sees the same students on a daily basis, you know which students have the most pressing issues related to discipline and which ones would profit most from a visit with the counselor as opposed to a visit with the Principal or Dean of Students. Not every matter needs to go to the principal.

On the other hand, you are out there amidst the masses and you hear various stories about kids regarding things that are happening in their lives. Sometimes you have established enough of a rapport with a student that he or she shares it with you himself. Once a student was talking to me about where she was going for the holidays and matter of actually told me that she and her two sisters are from 3 different fathers and they would be going to see all of the fathers as well as the related grandparents, And even though one of the fathers used to "beat my Mom up", things are pretty good around the holidays as long as he does not get too drunk, etc. The child acted as though this was completely normal, and although she was a discipline problem now and then, after hearing this story, I looked at her much differently. I realized quickly that this was something that should involve the guidance counselor.

Also remember that kids spend more time around the people in school than the people at home, so you will often know immediately when a kid just does not look right which might be an indicator of sexual abuse, drug use, eating disorders, pregnancy, self Abuse, etc. Maybe the grapevine knows about a death, a loss of a job, marital unrest, etc. You are the first line of defense in this process. The counselor has all of the right contacts and phone numbers of professionals that she can bring into the process. When a kid who was never a discipline problem starts to become one, or his work starts to take a negative turn, pay attention and do not just turn directly to the discipline code page in the student handbook. You and the counselor, working together, can be a great force for changing a kid's life- and the matter never has to get to the discipline office. Do not be upset, however, if after the counselor gets involved, he or she is unable to share all information about the child with you. There are some issues with Confidentiality involved, so maybe all you will hear is that "The matter is being taken care of." That may be all you are able to find out.

10. Careful About Examples

Do you remember the movie Home Alone? In it, Mc Cauley Culkin, the child who was left behind is talking to the old man who used to scare him. They are sitting in a church and the kid tells the old man that a certain third grader got "nailed" when kids found out that he wore dinosaur pajamas. If you are not careful about certain examples you speak about to misbehaving kids, you might get somebody "nailed". To clarify, if you had brothers or sisters, do you ever remember hearing this from either of your parents, "Why can not you be more like your brother who always makes the honor roll- he always does all of his work so neatly!

If, as a teacher, you make an example like this by saying, "Why can not you people in the back turn in neat work like Jimmy here- he is such a wonderful student?" … … you may be insuring that poor Jimmy is going to get "Nailed". The world of kids is difficult enough, do not put someone in peril because he or she is a model student. You can still have pageantry involving rewards, but never expressed in a comparative way as in, "Jimmy got this, but look at you Billy, you only got this!" Your parents did that. It did not necessarily endear you to your brother or sister when the comparison was made.

Importance of Cell Phone Cases

When cell phones were first becoming popular back in the 90’s, not many people had cell phone cases. And, if I remember right it was a kind of luxury to possess a mobile let alone a mobile with a protective cover.

However, back in the days there wasn’t a need of a cover as the mobiles were strong and box like, plus they didn’t possess any kind of sensors and touch screens that could easily get damaged when dropped.

But, today that’s all changed and it’s hard to imagine living without our phones. Cell phones from a luxury have now turned into a necessity and that’s the reason the competition in this field is so fierce.

It’s not just the manufacture of phones that has a lot of tough competition. Even cell phone case manufacturers are fighting tooth and nail in order to get their products sold.

Importance of phone cases

As already mentioned phone cases weren’t popular back in the day, but just as mobile phones is now a necessity, it is also really important that your phone has a really good mobile cover. By, really good it doesn’t mean that it has to be expensive or fancy – just that it should be high quality.

Drop protection

No matter how much care you take, there are instances wherein our phone drops onto the ground. If the cover weren’t present there could be chances of damaging the phone. Your mobile cover may not protect the phone totally, but the amount of damage would be a lot less.

No more scratches

Your screen guard would protect the screen from scratches when using it with your fingers. But, what would happen to your screen when you place the phone in your pocket? Your keys and even coins if any could damage the screen to a really bad extent.


Another important factor that you need to consider would be looks. Phone cases don’t just offer protection. They’re also pretty and add to the beauty of your phone. There are plenty of different options when it comes to styles of mobile phone cases and hence you need to make sure that the one you pick is perfect for your needs.

Therefore, due to these and many other reasons it is really important that you buy a cell phone cover or case that is specially manufactured for your phone as a tight fit is important.

Drainage System And Its Importance

Drainage is the disposal of excess water on land (either used in form of storm water). It must be distinguished from flood control which is the prevention of damage as a result of overflow from river. There are two type of system adopted for waste water collection. Separate sanitary and combined system. In separate sanitary system, there is a separate sewer that collects the household, commercial and industrial waste water and dispossess them while a separate sewer collects the storm water and it separately. In the combined system, both the storm water and domestic water are delivered through the same pipe network.

Sanitary sewers should have a self cleaning velocity of (6.1
M / s). This self cleaning velocity is achieved by laying the drain on a steep slope. Manholes should be placed at interval of 100-120m for the purpose of maintaining and servicing of the sewer. It should be noted that waste water in the sewer are typically transported by gravitational force rather than mechanical means (pumping) for convenient sake. This is why in laying sewer pipes; The topography of the area should be well understood.

The storm water flow can be estimated by .278CIA where C is the coefficient of runoff, I is the rainfall intensity and A is the catchment area. C is usually got from table which is a function of factors that affect infiltration. From rainy data I can be estimated.
A can be estimated by using planimeter or superimposing scaled grid paper on the map and note the grid that fall within the boundary of the map. The waste water from industry, commercial centers and domestic uses are usually estimated by knowing the quantity of waste water the users' discharges through the use of questionnaire and personal interview. The population of people and number of industries should be noted for this estimation.

The overall steps in layout sewers include:

  • Establish comprehensive map of the area including road contour, topography and utilities
  • Drains are shown with a single line with arrows for direction
  • Manholes are shown with a dot at all its necessary locations as the junctions and its intermediate point of 100-120m interval
  • Sewers are designed to follow natural topography
  • Sewers are mostly branch network
  • Sewers or drains are usually located along the road
  • Design approach for sewers is as follows;
  • Estimate manning constant and select slope
  • Compute the section factor
  • Get the best hydraulic section either rectangle or trapezoid
  • Check the satisfaction of minimum velocity
  • Addition of adequate freeboard to avoid overflowing

The disposal of the waste water could be treated or not treated. However, the treatment is usually by biological method. The disposal of waste water is of immerse important for economic growth. The treated or untreated waste could be used as a source of irrigation, supplement stream or river flow and could be used as a source of recharge for ground water.

It is obvious in the cities of the developing countries that the most of construction industries do not take note of all the above mentioned process. As a result storm water follows drains that are not specified for them or overflows the drains there by causing erosions. On the other hand, some of the storm water are stagnant in the drains there by becoming a breeding place for mosquitoes and toads. This could result in increase of malaria and water related disease in the vicinity. All this is because; Most government in such cities have not yet understood the important of drainage systems and the role it plays in social- economic development.