How To Call Australia

Here are step by step instructions on how to call Australia. To make any international call, there are a few things you need to know. The international Prefix. This code allows you to dial outside of the Country you are calling from, and every country has different codes. The next digits you will dial are the country code of the country you are calling. The country code can be from 1 to 3 digits. Next, you dial the area code or city code. This can be anywhere from 1 to 3 digits and will narrow your call down geographically in the country your calling. Last, but not least, you dial the local number, that’s it! Will look like this:

Step 1: Dial International Call Prefix (Dial 011 : The international access code)

Step 2: Dial Country Code (Dial 61 : The country code for Australia)

Step 3: Dial City Code (below)

* Adelaide – 08

* Albury – 02

* Alice Springs – 08

* Armidale – 02

* Ballarat – 03

* Brisbane – 07

* Cairns – 07

* Canberra – 02

* Darwin – 08

* Geelong – 03

* Gold Coast – 07

* Hamilton – 03

* Hobart – 03

* Launceston – 03

* Melbourne – 03

* Mildura – 03

* Newcastle – 02

* Perth – 08

* Sydney – 02

* Toowoomba – 07

* Townsville – 02

* Wollongong – 02

Step 4: Dial Local Number.

So, lets say you are trying to call Sydney, Australia from Miami, Florida, USA. Lets say the local number is 643-4398. You know that 011 is the prefix when dialing from inside the US. The country code for Australia is 61. The city code (area code) for Sydney is 02, and that’s it! Done deal. So your dialing sequence will look like this:

011 + 61 + 02 + 6434398

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A Simple Winning Greyhound Laying System For Betfair

Can you really make money laying greyhounds on Betfair? There are many systems out there for laying horses but grayhound racing is a less popular form of laying to make money. With a simple logical system for laying greyhounds it is possible to make money from this more ignored form of gambling.

Just as with horse racing, there is a lot of freely available information about greyhound racing and each dog's form. We can use this as a basis for a system to make money laying greyhounds if applied with discipline and some simple rules. With any betting strategy I like to have a very sound and logical basis as the foundation. For example, which team is more likely to win in a football match? The one which will statistically score the most goals! Which greyhound will more than likely win a race? The one which can run the fastest! Do not dismiss this approach as it really is possible to use such obvious common sense to build a winning laying system for greyhound racing.

Here's what I do in practice. We can find recent race performance from many sources on the internet telling us about any dog's recent race performance. A great starting point is to look at the time each dog ran its last race over. From this it's very easy to find which were the slowest. We also need to check that the race we're looking at is the same grade as the previous. If the dog is moving up to more competitive higher grade race this simple strategy will not work. To make the system more sophisticated we can look at the average time over the dog's last 2 or 3 races. We now start to have a really good basis for a grayhound laying system!

To ensure maximum profits we do need to add some further rules. A key rule is to limit your exposure and protect your betting bank. For example, if we find a dog running in a race which is clearly running much slower than it's competitors but has odds of 12-1 I would not bet. Slim as it's chances are if the dog does make it first to the line we are going to suffer a bad hit.

Combining simple logical rules like this we can develop a simple grayhound laying system to supplement horse racing and other gambling systems.

What is an Intercom?

An Intercom (intercommunication device) is a communication tool that allows two or more people to carry a conversation or communicate in some manner through different rooms or compartments in a structure (ie. a building, ship, airplane, etc). This communication over an electric circuit device is mostly found mounted permanently within building structures (whether business or residential) or vehicles (ie. airplanes, ships, buses, etc.).

Intercom connections can come in the form of walkie-talkies, telephones, and cell phones over a phone line or data line. Intercoms are used to mainly communicate within a building. For example, you can have an intercom system within your house to monitor what’s going on in your child’s room or to communicate with your spouse or other family member in a different part of the house.

Intercoms come in a variety of styles. Some are extremely easy to use while others can be very complicated. There are audio intercoms, video intercoms, integratable and multi-tenant intercoms. Top of the line intercom manufacturers include Aiphone, Quantometrix and Vitec Group Communications. These companies offer a wide variety of communication systems consisting of audio, audio visual, IP network intercoms, apartment entry intercoms, nurse call, and bowling alley intercoms.

Audio Intercoms

Also known as voice intercoms, audio Intercoms have one main unit and other smaller units in different parts of a building allowing communication between the main part of the building such as a living room or a kitchen and smaller part of the building such as bedrooms or restrooms. Some audio intercoms play music over the system. If you have a baby in the house, audio intercoms can be used as a baby monitor. This allows you to hear when the baby is crying or if the baby is sound asleep.

Video Intercoms

Video Intercoms have the same capabilities as their voice/audio-only counterparts but in addition to voice or audio communication, they allow you to see what activities are going on in different part of the building via a small video screen. This is a great tool for families with kids. Parents or other adult family members can check your kids while they are playing in their room or backyard while they are making dinner in the kitchen. Video intercoms are also useful to find out who is at the door before opening it. Some sophisticated video intercom systems allow you to unlock your front door from a different location.

Business Intercoms

Intercoms provide a number of uses for businesses by allowing them to communicate to multiple employees at the same time. For example, a large office or warehouse full of employees can be reached simultaneously through a single employee’s use of an intercom. Department and grocery stores use intercoms to communicate with both employees and customers. These stores are able to keep customers up-to-date on sales, closing times, or any other subject.

Intercom Systems

Intercoms are made up of different parts, and are thus sometimes referred to as intercom systems. These parts include master or bases stations, door stations, bus stations, belt packs, handsets, headsets, and power supplies. Intercom systems come in a variety of types including Two-wire broadcast intercoms, Four-wire broadcast intercoms, Wireless intercoms, and Telephone Intercoms.

Phone Systems For Small Business – 8 Criteria For Evaluating an IP Phone System

Shoretel’s CEO, John Combs, presented a keynote address recently at IT Expo West, providing very relevant advice to IT managers and others buying a voice over IP (VOIP) phone system. He used the MAC iPhone as an analogy, to illustrate how new technology can quickly dominate an industry. In the case of a VOIP business phone system, IP technology is poised to dominate correspondingly over existing analog (TDM) systems.

VOIP telephone systems can greatly increase user adaption rates, leading to improved productivity in an organization. An IP phone system allows the collaborative and reach aspects of unified messaging technology. The VOIP telephone system generally includes features such as teleconferencing, unified messaging (voicemail in email), web collaboration, mobile integration (cell phones), presence (to locate employees quickly), instant messaging, video conferencing and business process integration (customer relationship management, sales, accounting, etc.).

What differentiates one vendor’s small business phone systems from another’s? Mr. Combs suggests a a very structured selection process when choosing office telephone systems with VOIP for business. He proposed 8 evaluation criteria to be used by the evaluation team making the choice of a new VOIP business phone system:

  1. Usability. There must be an onsite demonstration including the exact hardware to be deployed. It is often advisable to have two or more vendors demonstrate side-by-side, or on the other hand to install alternative prototypes at two separate company offices and then exchange systems and locations to find out which one was best.
  2. Reliability. What is the anticipated failure rate, based on actual deployed systems using Bellcore/Telecordia standards? Mr Combs pointed out that academic failure rates are not sufficient for confidence in deploying a new system. You don’t want to the the “guinea pig” for a vendor’s prototype or Beta testing.
  3. Availability. Make certain understand the impact of downtime on the business based on the planned configuration. Count the points of failure are there in the vendor’s configuration?
  4. Scalability. What are the costs should you need to double the planned configuration?
  5. Architecture. What methodology was used to design the system? Was it well thought out or technology patched together from disparate systems and conflicting architectures?
  6. Total Cost of Ownership. Most of the time upfront costs (hardware, network and implementation) amount to only 20% of the complete system expense over the system’s lifecycle. Day-to-day costs (training, move/add/change, system management, network and utilities) can amount to 80% over the system lifetime. What is the case with the systems under consideration?
  7. Vendor Financial Status. Make sure the vendor has a solid balance sheet, or be prepared for support issues should they encounter financial difficulty.
  8. Vendor References. Your team should contact their industry associates for information relevant to the vendors being considered Did they make a wise decision with this vendor? Do they know of other references? How do actual costs compare to vendor estimates? Is it easy for IT staff to support? What about any “raving fans?”

When evaluating to upgrade small business phone systems, the usual choice is a VOIP business phone system. A careful evaluation of each vendor’s offerings and in particular the presence of “raving fans” for any VOIP business phone system are critical in getting all the benefits of VOIP for business.

Ten Commandments of Effective Communication

Everything we do is communication. Without communication we will not be able to interact in a civilized manner. Without communication we will not be able to create modern societies. Without communication we would not be able to create prosperity for ourselves. Without communication we would not be able to construct organizations necessary for the reproduction of material wealth. Communication is the most important building block of human civilization. According to the German philosopher Jurgen Habermas the social reality consists of two parts: system and lifeworld. The system consists of the political subsystem and the economic subsystem. The lifeworld consists of the private domain and the public domain. Communication in the system occurs strategically or is based on finding ways to find and refine various methods and techniques to make our lives wealthier and more efficient. Communication in the lifeworld is the opposite; it is based on symmetric relationships between people and is aimed towards finding consensus on many issues facing our social reality. Communication in the lifeworld is truly aimed at finding common grounds between all people involved. For this reason Habermas calls all interaction in the lifeworld communicative rationality.

If communication is so important then this implies a certain competency level in the strategies and tactics of communication possessed by all people irrespective of their education, social background, nationality, and common language. This is unfortunately not true because a large number of people do not have the proper communication skills necessary to become successful. Most of them are simply muddling through their daily lives using basic communication skills which are barely enough to keep their heads above the water. What are actually the characteristics of good communicators? Below are some typical characteristics which good communicators possess:

1. Good communicators pay attention to everything the other person is communicating;

2. Good communicators constantly think about the nature of their messages: they always think about when, where, and how they will deliver their messages;

3. Good communicators always try to find the right combination of words, body language, dress, and tone of voice before sending a message;

4. Good communicators try to avoid using the same words when sending their message to different persons because no one person is identical. Good communicators try to find out what is important for the other person;

5. Good communicators are always ready to be flexible or try to move on after delivering their message by reaching a decision, solving a problem, negotiating a compromise, etc;

6. Good communicators are fully aware of the reciprocal nature of communication which is a process of giving and receiving a message. Good communication is a like a dance which entails leading and following.

Although the above typical characteristics seem to be obvious and easy to understand, many people have difficulties applying them in a consistent manner. Communication is a process which is comparable to driving a car. The more you do it, the better driver you will become. Experience is the best teacher in communication. Moreover, the willingness to learn from your experiences is very important. Of course we make mistakes, but we try to learn from those mistakes and become better next time.

Having explained the above characteristics of good communicators, what are the ten commandments of effective communication?

1. Always try to give feedback based on facts and not on opinions and/or emotions which might upset or offend the other person;

2. Always try to empathize or to see a situation from the other’s point view. Try to accept the other person’s views without preaching and/or moralizing;

3. Criticize using neutral language and tone of voice;

4. Say what you mean without becoming sarcastic;

5. If you want something from others, ask, don’t command;

6. Give the other person a chance to speak, don’t slip into ‘railroading’;

7. Explain why something needs to happen, don’t threaten;

8. Don’t give advice or opinions if people don’t ask for it;

9. Be to the point, avoid vagueness at all cost;

10. Don’t talk down or up to others; avoid diverting the conversation to trivial matters.

Communication Barriers: Simplifying the Communication Process

The communication process can be much more difficult than a person thinks. Unfortunately, many times a presenter does not realize that their message is being lost until it is too late and they have gone through an entire meeting/lecture talking away about something that their colleagues/audience thinks is absolutely meaningless. Here are some helpful questions to ask yourself before attempting to relay a message to a large audience.

Communication barriers may be categorized as follows: Assumptions about yourself — Do I really have something to offer? Is it safe for me to offer suggestions? Do I really want to share the information? Will others really understand? How will the communication affect my self-esteem? Attitudes about the message itself — Is the information valuable? Do I see the information correctly or understand it well enough to describe it to others? Is it organized? Am I comfortable with what I am saying? Can I maintain eye contact? Sensing the receiver’s reaction — Do I become aware of whether or not the receiver is actually understanding? Or, in other words, can I “sense” from certain cues or reactions by the receiver, whether or not we are communicating? Am I aware of the receiver’s needs? interests?

Communication can easily be simplified. All you have to do is know the major causes of communication failures and detect them as they occur. Typically, people involved in communication breakdowns are either (a) utterly unaware that the communication has failed and that misunderstanding has resulted; or (b) painfully aware of a communication blockage — or complete breakdown — and frustrated by not knowing the reasons why. In either case, people are powerless to handle or remedy the problem. Remember, the expert communicator not only learns to detect communication barriers but also to anticipate them and use an appropriate remedy to overcome them.

What If Your Immune System Stops Working?

Immunodeficiency disorders happen when one or more components of your immune system are missing or when the system is not working as supposed to be. Defects in one’s immune system can be congenital or acquired. Either way, having problems with the immune system permits harmful microorganisms to easily penetrate the body’s defenses and make anyone suffer various diseases.

Congenital Or Primary Type

If you are born with deficiencies in your immune system, you are said to be suffering from primary immunodeficiency. If you have the primary type of this disease, you may not be able to enjoy life like other people do. Your predisposition to contract all sorts of contagious diseases may start in your childhood days or it may not make its presence known until later in life. The following are two of the most common examples of inborn immunodeficiency disorder.

IgA Deficiency

IgA refers to your Immunoglobulin A which is basically a group of antibodies that are mainly found in your respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. These antibodies are largely in the form of fluids secreted in the areas mentioned and are often described as your body’s first line of defense against harmful invaders. You can also find these antibodies in your saliva and the tears in your eyes.

For people who have IgA deficiency, the body is not producing adequate amounts of this particular class of antibodies. Meaning, all harmful microorganisms may be allowed to enter your body with less or no opposition at all. Having this disorder will make you prone to most allergies, cold viruses, and other infections in the respiratory tract.

Severe Combined Immunodeficiency

Also known as SCID, this immune system disorder is defined by a severe defect in the body’s production of T-cells. Your T-cells, basically, may be thought of as the Marines of your whole defense system; T-cells do not just provide a defensive wall but they are the elite fighting units that actually attack unwanted intruders in your body. Now, you can just imagine what will happen if your body has only a few of these soldiers; it will be totally impossible for your body to keep off infections.

A classic case of SCID has been experienced by a young boy in Texas who tried to live inside a sterilized plastic bubble to prevent microorganisms from getting inside his body. This boy even became a stuff of medical legend and has been known as the Bubble Boy, which later on paved the way for this disease to be referred to as the bubble boy disease.

Acquired Or Secondary Type

Most are born without any defects in their immune system. However, factors like malnutrition, severe infections or nasty side-effects from some medication may cause disorders in some people that can weaken the body’s immune system. This type of immunodeficiency may include the following.


Everybody has heard about the Human Immunodeficiency Virus or HIV and the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome or AIDS. Slowly but surely, this disease leads to the total breakdown of the immune system. The problem is caused by a virus which can annihilate the number of T-cells, particularly the helper cells, in the body. Without the T-helper cells, your body will not be able to defend itself from all sorts of infection and other harmful organisms. You can contract HIV from careless or unprotected sexual intercourse and from using hypodermic or tattoo needles that are contaminated with the virus.

Immune Disorders Caused By Medication

Sometimes, secondary immune system disorders may be brought about by some medical treatments. Take the case of chemotherapy in patients with cancer; this process is known to wipe out not just cancerous cells, but healthy immune cells as well. Also, people who have undergone organ transplants need to take medicines that are designed to suppress the body’s resistance against the new organ; which can only mean withholding immune cells from performing their functions.

Indeed, the health of your immune system is very important for your own survival. So never take it for granted. To boost your body’s disease-fighting capabilities, you can take supplements like Immunitril. Visit for more details.

3 Principles For Improving Human Relations

Relationships among employees, supervisors, and co-workers can be improved immediately. By following three simple principals in your dealings with others, you can put more quality into your-and employee's work life.

Three basic principles that can be followed to enhance relationships among employees, co-workers, and supervisors are: Be quick to listen, slow to speak, and even slower to lose your temper.

Quick to listen .

Since we have two ears and one mouth, it has been said that we should listen at least twice as much as we talk. Unfortunately most of us reverse this and talk more than twice as much as we listen! Listening to another person builds self-esteem because it shows the person that you are genuinely interested in him or her. Listening, however, involves more than just hearing words. If we are to be good listeners we need to use three sets of ears "to really hear the total message being sent to us. Communication, and we must feel the emotion of the other person. So good listening motives ears, eyes, and heart. They are two important rules for good listening: stop talking and get rid of distractions. We do not listen to what the other person is saying. As for distractions, it is not easy to get rid of the phone, interruptions, paperwork, and so on, but it is a "must" for good listening. Remember, Too, that listening skills can be learned. . If we're genuinely interested in people, it will show in our listening habits. We need to work to develop our skills and concentrate more on the other person instead of ourselves. The immediate improvement in relations with employees and co-workers will be obvious.

Slow to speak.

By concentrating on total listening, we can use pauses in the conversation to frame our thoughts and plan what we'll say next. This will improve our communications skills because our words will really address the ideas or pointsrought out by others. When we're talking, it is not unusual to say more than really intended or in some other way create trouble for ourselves and other employees or supervisors. But the more we listen and encourage others to talk, the more we'll learn and the more opportunities we'll have to improve human relations by building the self-esteem of others.

Slow to lose your temper .

Saying we should never lose our temper is unrealistic. If we do get angry, the important thing is to focus on behaviors, not individuals-to focus on "what happened" instead of "who did it!" This way we can avoid verbally attacking an employee or co-worker and destroying relationships. By focusing on behaviors, we also improve relationships. Keep in mind that we lose our right to "temper tantrums" when we step into management roles. While it's not OK for an employee to have a temper tantrum or outburst, it can be tolerated. It can not, however, be tolerated in management ranks.

10 Tips for Careful Communication

Many mishaps and misunderstanding in the office stem from poor communication. This leads to a destruction of value as it diverts the efforts of the organization away from value added tasks to focus on containing and rectifying the situation.

Communication is all about the transfer of information, and ensuring people have the right information to make the best decisions possible. We are all brokers of information. Our responsibility is to make sure we make the best decisions with the information available, and be open to the fact that someone might have information that could affect our decision.

Here are a few tips for careful communications

  1. Avoid “Reply all”- Too often people hit the “Reply All” button. Most often it is not warranted. Before using the “Reply all” ask yourself “who really needs to be included?”, and limit your response to those individuals.
  2. Only include those that need to be included- Many times emails are sent including anyone and everyone, most of which have no desire or need to be included. Be respectful of people’s time and only include them on emails that require their attention. Some emails do need to be sent as information. A simple technique to help would be, only include those that are part of the decision making or required to “action” in the “to:”, and all others included for information be included in the “cc:”.
  3. Follow up a conversation with a confirmation email – Remembering that some discussions are best left out of emails, there is nothing wrong with sending a follow up email to clarify the take away points from a discussion. Something along the lines of “As per our conversation…… “, will provide an opportunity for others to clarify if there were any misinterpretations or understandings before things get started.
  4. Whenever Possible avoid email- It is always better to walk over to the cubicle next door or pick up the phone to discuss a situation rather than sending an email. Email is far overused method of communication that can easily spiral out of control. It is amazing how simply an email can be taken out of context whether it be; improper wording or capitalization. By talking directly, you have the ability to clarify or diffuse a situation before it snowballs.
  5. Make a clear distinction between fact and opinion- Many times opinion can be misrepresented as fact which can cause more confusion lead to issues being blown out of proportion. An opinion which is asserted or perceived to be presented as fact will cause the receiver to become defensive and less open to communication. Discussions take on a completely different tones when based on fact versus opinion. A fact based discussion can be perceived as confrontational and an “I am right you are wrong” tone. Conversely an opinion based discussion is subjective and based on an accumulation of facts which is more easily diffused as everyone has a right to their opinion. By clearly distinguishing fact and opinion or objective and subjective observations, the receiver is more likely to be open to discussion and less defensive resulting in better communication.
  6. When receiving communication always listen- Before dismissing or jumping to conclusions. Listen to the entire the message and don’t get caught up in the way the message is delivered. Focus on understanding the message. Before assuming negatively, politely ask for clarification and help understanding. Many times the message received is not what was intended to be sent.
  7. Avoid communicating when emotional– Emotions such: as anger, frustration, hurt, impair judgement and can result in sending a message that should not have been sent. When in this situation, draft your message and step away. Take some time to clear you head and regain composure. It is better to refrain than to regret. Always maintain composure when communicating, especially when sending an email. If sending an email on a sensitive topic which might stimulate or has stimulated an emotional response, always wait until you regain your composure and objectivity before hitting send. Once it is sent, it is out there with little chance of getting it back. Even though many email programs have a recall function, the reliability is very low.
  8. Remember some topics are best left out of email- Although email is a great tool for keeping track of conversations some content is best left out of email. As emails are easily misinterpreted, caution must be exercised. Email can be subject to litigation discovery. Many litigation battles have been won due to misconstrued emails. Before sending an email, ask yourself if this is something that should not be open to discovery.
  9. KISS Rule- Keep it Short and Simple. Always make sure that your communications are direct and to the point. Clarity is the best cure for miscommunication.
  10. Most importantly ALWAYS exhibit Humility. Always remember that communicating is an exchange of information. When dealing with other people, remember we are all information brokers and some have information that others don’t. By understanding that we or someone else might not have all the information to make an informed decision, we are better able to be open minded to the exchange of information. This will lead to better communications and better decision making.